The occurrence of type 2 diabetes continues to soar to epidemic proportions reaching almost 8% (23.6 million) of the populationin the U.S. alone. Another 57 million Americans have prediabetes, defined by an impaired fasting glucose value as a result ofinsulin resistance. Insulin resistance is a key pathophysiologic feature of the "metabolic syndrome" and is strongly associatedwith co-existing cardiovascular risk factors and accelerated atherosclerosis. Due to the clinical consequences associated withinsulin resistance in subjects with metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes, clinical regimens directed at increasing insulinsensitivity in vivo remain one of the most desirable goals of treatment. Although it is well established that lifestyle modificationcan improve insulin resistance and effectively improve many of the risk factors associated with metabolic syndrome, thesuccess of maintaining lifestyle changes in humans over a chronic period is poor. Therefore, strategies to improve insulinresistance by pharmacological means have represented the traditional approach for clinical medicine. However, because of thewidespread use of dietary supplements by the general public, nutritional supplementation with the use of botanicals thateffectively increase insulin sensitivity represent a very attractive and novel approach for future studies designed to intervene inthe development of metabolic syndrome. Basically, we will provide a comprehensive analysis of the hypothesis that extracts from Artemisia, moringa and fenugreek improve insulin sensitivity, isolate and characterize the active components of the extracts through the activity guided fractionation based on the in vitro activities in muscle cells, adipocytes or liver cells, and assess the bioavailability of active component of the extracts using TNO Intestinal Model (TIM) apparatus that simulates human gastro intestinal tract. In addition, we will screen Louisiana native plant species with a Creole history of medicinal use for bioactivities related to metabolic syndrome and identify specific bioactive components of those plants. The proposed study will benefit the value added agriculture of the State of NJ and provide tangible benefits to the biotechnology and pharmaceutical industries in the State. NJ farmers will benefit from the technologies because they will be provided with the opportunity to grow new crops with a greater value since the crops will contain bioactive compounds useful for the treatment and prevention of diabetes and metabolic syndrome. Pharmaceutical and nutraceutical companies will use the processed plants as the source of novel ingredients for drugs, foods and or dietary supplements.
Adipocytes; Agriculture; American; Artemisia; Atherosclerosis; base; Biological Availability; Biotechnology; Botanicals; cardiovascular risk factor; Chronic; Clinical; Clinical Medicine; Development; Diabetes Mellitus; Diabetes prevention; dietary supplements; Drug Industry; Epidemic; Evaluation; farmer; Food; Fractionation; Future; General Population; Goals; Hepatocyte; Human; Impaired fasting glycaemia; improved; in vitro activity; in vivo; Insulin Resistance; insulin sensitivity; Intestines; Life Style; Louisiana; Metabolic syndrome; Modeling; Moringa; Muscle Cells; Non-Insulin-Dependent Diabetes Mellitus; novel; novel strategies; Nutraceutical; Nutritional; Pharmaceutical Preparations; Pharmacologic Substance; Plants; Prediabetes syndrome; Prevention; Process; Recording of previous events; Regimen; Research Design; Resistance; Risk Factors; Simulate; Source; Supplementation; Technology; Trigonella foenum-graecum